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Public Sector Undertaking (PSU) is a term used for a government-owned corporation. The term is used to refer to companies in which the government (either the Union Government or state or territorial governments, or both) owned a majority (51 percent or more) of the company equity.

A lot of Public Sector Undertakings (PSU) under the aegis of Government of India regularly provide for employment opportunities in various areas. Job seekers can apply to these undertakings, according to their required job profile and area of interest.


The underlying reason for such an extensive presence of PSU in Indian economy lies in the economic policy adopted after independence. The greater thrust was given on economic development with social perspective. In order to attain this, the method of central planning was adopted.

But since the targets set in the first Five Year plan (1951-56) were not attained, then the process of setting-up national champions in strategic sectors -heavy industry, steel, oil & gas, banking & insurance among others was initiated to achieve these targets. Some of the largest and most successful PSUs-BHEL, State Bank of India, ONGC, Indian Oil Corp, Oil India, Steel Authority of India and Bharat Electronics among others owe their genesis to this period.

The biggest growth in the number of PSUs however occurred in late 1960s and early 1970s, when most of the large commercial banks were nationalised followed by a similar move in coal mining, crude oil refining & marketing and textile among others. The list of PSUs increased further in 70s and 80s with the establishment of new national companies such as National Thermal Power corp.(NTPC), National Aluminium, Gas Authority of India (GAIL) and Rashtriya Ispat Nigam among others.

Role of PSUs in Indian Economics

India succeeded in maintaining its economic growth at above 6% largely on account of large doses in shape of government stimulus package, which included a large expenditure programme on infrastructure. The government also shielded the consumer's wallet from the vagaries of international market by subsiding fuel, food and fertiliser prices. None of these policies would have been possible without the resources made available by the large government owned enterprises.

Being the largest commercial enterprises in the country, PSUs provide a huge leverage to the government (their controlling shareholder) to intervene in the economy directly or indirectly to achieve the desired socio-economic objectives. At times, these objectives may be misplaced but at others especially in times of do-or-die situation such as in 2008, PSUs play a key role in steering the national economy in the right direction.

It's true of other emerging economies as well. A recent study by The Economist magazine showed that it's difficult for an emerging economy with a small or non-existent public sector (such as The Philippines) to achieve sustainable economic growth. Though its anecdotal evidence, it should not be surprising. The government-owned commercial enterprises possess the unique ability to rise above the short-term commercial interest to invest in local assets and resources so as to maximise the long-term economic gains.

Just consider the recent examples; It might be PSU banks which offered lower interest rates to revitalise the sectors like real estate, SMEs or agriculture; Oil Marketing Companies which bled but maintained the retail prices of petroleum products low when crude oil price was at its peak of $147 per barrel a year ago and helped India avoid a social and economic chaos.

The rural growth story, which has recently caught an attention of private sector could not have been possible without the number of basic infrastructure services offered by public sector in this area. LIC, one of the largest PSUs, was probably the only large investor in the Indian equity market when rest of the large investors preferred to stay away during the market turmoil of 2008.

It does not mean PSUs are important only during the time of crisis. In normal course also it is difficult to think of the Indian economy without public enterprises given India's socio-economic and demographic reality. The sector is deeply entrenched in the domestic economy and their business operations are now enmeshed in the common man's life.

IOCL JE Asst Exam Pattern :

S. No Exam Type Subject Name Marks Duration
1. Written Exam (Objective) English 100 marks. 3 hours.
2. General Studies
3. Technical

IOCL Junior Engineer Assistant Syllabus

IOCL JE Asst Syllabus – English  :Synonyms & Antonyms , Idioms and phrases , One word substitutions , Fill in the blanks , Comprehension passage , Shuffling of sentence parts etc , Vocabulary.

IOCL JEA Syllabus – General Studies : Science and technology , Indian history and culture , Indian polity , India-economy and geography of India , Current events , General mental ability.

IOCL Syllabus – Electrical :Electronics Devices , Analog and Digital Electronics , Electromagnetic Theory , Control Systems , Network Analysis , Power Systems , Power System Protectio , Electrical Instrumentation , Power Electronics & Drives , Electrical Machines , Utilization of Electrical Energy , Power System Analysis & Control , Switch Gear and Protection etc

IOCL Syllabus – Mechanical :Theory of Machines , le Engineering , Structural Engineering , Fluid Mechanics , Thermodynamics , Industrial Engineering & Management etc , Hydraulics , Manufacturing Technology , Heat Engines , The Strength of Materials.

IOCL JE Assistant Syllabus  – Chemical :Process Calculations and Thermodynamics , Fluid Mechanics and Mechanical Operations , Heat Transfer , Mass Transfer , Chemical Reaction Engineering , Instrumentation and Process Control , Plant Design and Economics , Chemical Technology.

IOCL Junior Engineer Asst Syllabus – InstrumentationBasics of Circuits and Measurement Systems , Transducer , Signals , Analog Electronics , Digital Electronics , Optical Instrumentation , Electrical and Electronics Measurements , Biomedical Instrumentation , Control Systems and Process Control , Systems and Communications , Analytical Instrumentation , Industrial Instrumentation , Mechanical Measurement.

IOCL Syllabus – Mathematics :Time & Work , Time & Distance , Percentage , Ratio & Proportion , Average , Partnership , Simple Interest , Profit & Loss , Discount , Number Systems , Decimals and Fractions , Computation of Whole Numbers , Fundamental Arithmetical Operations , the Relationship between Numbers , Mensuration , Use of Tables and Graphs.

NTPC ITI Trainee Exam Pattern 2017

S. No Type of Exam Medium of Exam Parts Subjects No. of Questions
1. Objective Type Hindi/ English Part I Knowledge Test on Concerned Subjects 70
2. Part II General Awareness 50
3. Quantitative Aptitude
4. Reasoning

There is a Negative Marks of 0.25 Mark for each wrong Answer.

NTPC ITI Trainee Exam Syllabus 2017

General Awareness :Current Affairs – National & International , Sports , Budget and Five Year Plans , Abbreviations , Important Financial & Economic News , Books and Authors , Awards and Honors , Science – Inventions & Discoveries ,International & National Organizations ,  Important Days , Countries & Capitals , General Knowledge , Computers Basics etc.

AptitudeSimplification , Percentages , Average , Area , Time & Work , Simple & Compound Interest , Profit & Loss , Investment , Time & Speed , Problem On Ages , HCF & LCM , Pictorial Graph , Bar Graph , Data Interpretation , Pie Chart , Fundamental Arithmetical operations , Number Systems , Geometry , Algebra , Trigonometry , Mensuration , Statistical Charts.

ResoningProblem Solving , Decision Making , Syllogistic Reasoning , Judgment , Visual Memory , Analogies , Non-Verbal Series , Number Series , Clocks & Calendars , Directions , Coding-Decoding , Alphabet Series , Cubes and Dice , Arithmetical Reasoning , Mirror Images , Arrangements , Number Ranking , Embedded Figures , Blood Relations etc.

National Thermal Power Corporation Syllabus – MechanicalMechanics , The Strength of Materials , Theory of Machine , Pneumatics  & Hydraulics , Mechanical Measuring Instruments , Engineering Drawing & Design/Design Calculation , Production Design , Manufacturing Processes/ Heat & Surface Treatment, Heat & Mass Transfer , Manufacturing Processes(Drilling, Milling, Boring)/ Manufacturing Technology , Thermal Engineering/ Power Plant Engineering , Metrology and Measurements/Tolerance Limits, Fits.

NTPC ITI Trainee Syllabus – InstrumentationBasics of Circuits and Measurement Systems , Digital Electronics , Instrumentation , Signal and Systems , Control Systems and Process Control , Transducers, Mechanical Measurement, and Industrial Instrumentation , Electrical and Electronic Measurements , Analytical, Optical and Bio-medical Instrumentation , Analog Electronics.

NTPC Fitter, Electrician, Store Keeper, Instrument Mechanic Syllabus – ElectricalElectrical Basics , DC Machine, AC Machine & Transformer , Electrical Engineering Materials , Electrical Measurements & Measuring , Analog Circuits/ Electronics , Control System , Instruments , Generation, Transmission & distribution of Electrical Power , Digital Electronics , Network theory , Circuit Theory , Power Electronics & Drives , Microprocessor.

BHEL  ITI Trade Apprentice Exam Pattern

S. No Exam Type Subject Name No. of Questions No. of Marks Exam Duration
1. Written Test Professional Knowledge Reasoning Ability Numerical Ability English usage General Awareness 150 150 2 Hours
Total 150 150 2 hours

BHEL ITI Trade Apprentice Syllabus for Reasoning Ability :

Similarities and Differences , Space Visualization , Problem Solving , Analysis , Judgement , Decision Making , Visual Memory , Discriminating Observation , Relationship Concepts , Figure Classification , Arithmetical Number Series etc.

BHEL  Trade Apprentice Syllabus for Numerical Ability :

Percentages , Simplification , Averages , Profit and Loss , Problems on Ages , Time & Work , Interest , Pipes & Cisterns , Time & Distance , Boats & Streams , Data Interpretation etc.

BHEL Trade Apprentice Syllabus for General Awareness :

Sports , History , Culture , Geography , Economic Scene , General Polity , Indian Constitution , Scientific Research , Current Events – International & National etc.

BHEL ITI Trade Apprentice Syllabus for English :

Vocabulary , Fill in the blanks , Comprehension , One Word Substitution , Error Detection , Cloze Test , Transformation of Sentences , Tenses etc.

BHEL ITI Trade Apprentice Syllabus for Professional Knowledge :

Fitter , Electrician , Machinist , Turner , Welder , Mechanic Motor Vehicle , Electronic Mechanic , Computer (COPA) , Mason , Draftsman , Painter etc.

GAIL Exam Patten :

Sr. NO Exam Type Subjects
1. Objective Type Reasoning & General Intelligence
2. General Awareness
3. Aptitude
4. English
5. Technical Subjects

General Intelligence & Reasoning Syllabus :

Analysis , Decision Making , Space Visualization , Figure Classification , Visual Memory , Problem Solving , Relationship Concepts , Similarities and Differences , Judgement , Discriminating Observation , Arithmetical Number Series etc.

Quantitative Aptitude Syllabus:

Interest , Time & Distance , Simplification Percentages ,  Profit and Loss , Averages , Pipes & Cisterns , Boats & Streams Problems on Ages ,  Time & Work , Data Interpretation etc.

GAIL Syllabus for English:

Vocabulary , Fill in the blanks , Cloze Test , Transformation of Sentences , Comprehension , One Word Substitution , Error Detection , Tenses etc.

General Awareness Syllabus :

Current Events – National & International , Economy , General Polity , Indian Constitution , Scientific Research & Technology , Sports , History , Culture , Geography etc.

GAIL Junior Chemist Syllabus – Chemical Engineering

Property of Matter , Process of Dynamics , Industrial Chemistry , Reaction Engineering , Transfer Proces , Process Analysis , Heat Transfer , Mechanical Operations , Mass Transfer , Petroleum Refinery Engineering , Fertilizers Technology , Chemical Process , Stoichiometry , Process Control and Instrumentation , Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics , Chemical Reaction Engineering , Fuels and Combustions , Materials and construction , Process Equipment and Plant Design , Chemical Engineering Plant Economics , Nuclear Power Energy , Furnace Technology.

GAIL Jr Engineer, Foreman Syllabus – Mechanical :

The Strength of Materials , Theory of Machines , The design of Machine Elements, Heat-Transfer , Fluid Mechanics , Thermodynamics , Power Plant Engineering , Refrigeration and air-conditioning , Turbomachinery , Engineering Materials , Metal Casting , Forming Processes , Joining Processes , Operations , Metrology and Inspection , Operations Research , Inventory Control , Production Planning and Control , Manufacturing Analysis , Tool Engineering , Metrology and Inspection.

GAIL Foreman Syllabus – Instrumentation :

Mechanical Measurement, and Industrial Instrumentation , Transducers , Digital Electronics , Analytical, Optical and Bio-medical Instrumentation , Basics of Circuits and Measurement Systems , Analytical, Optical, and Bio-medical , Signal and Systems , Electrical and Electronic Measurements , Control Systems and Process Control , Analog Electronics.

GAIL Foreman Syllabus – Electrical :

Power System Analysis & Control , Utilisation of Energy , Control Systems , Machines , Power System Protection , Instrumentation , Analog and Digital Electronics , Power Electronics & Drives , Network Analysis , Electronics Devices , Power Systems , Electromagnetic Theory , Switch Gear and Protection etc.

ONGC Assistant Technician Exam Pattern 2017

S.No Exam Subject No of Questions No of Marks Duration
1. Written Test Concerned Subject 80 80 2 Hours
2. General Mental Ability and Aptitude 20 20
Total 100 100
  • The ONGC Assistant Technician Exam comprises of Multiple Choice questions.
  • 80 marks will be from the concerned subjects.
  • And 20 marks are from Mental Ability and Aptitude.
  • So the total number of marks in ONGC Recruitment is 100 marks.
  • And the duration of ONGC exam is 2 Hours.
  • No negative marking in the ONGC Assistant Technician Exam.

ONGC Syllabus 2017 – General Awareness :

Important Days , Abbreviations , Awards and Honors , Major Financial/Economic News , Science – Inventions and Discoveries , Books and Authors , Budget and Five Year Plans , Sports , Current Affairs (National and International) , International and National Organizations.

ONGC Syllabus 2017 – Reasoning :

Analytical Reasoning , Analogies , Symbols and Notations , Syllogisms , Alphabet Series , Directions , NonVerbal Reasoning , Coding-Decoding , Classification , Similarities and Differences , Number Series , Data Sufficiency , Arrangements , Blood Relationships , Statements , Visual Ability etc.

ONGC Assistant Technician Syllabus 2017 – Aptitude :

Number Systems , Simple Interest , Ratio & Proportion , Fundamental Arithmetical Operations , Relationship Between Numbers , Average , Partnership , Use of Tables and Graphs , Time & Distance , Percentages , Mensuration , Profit & Loss , Time & Work , Computation of Whole Numbers , Discount , Decimals and Fractions.

PSU'S Exam Pattern 2017

Now various PSU’s like: IOCL, NTPC, CONCOR, GAIL, BPCL, HP

CL, BHEL, PGCIL, BEL, DDA etc. companies are considering GATE SCORE for their Recruitment. Generally, PSU’s Companies short list 2.5 to 3.5 times number of candidates for the interview process after GATE Exam result.


Manny PSU’s are also conducting their own written exam for their recruitment.

The written test consists of two papers- Technical and Aptitude. The questions of the Technical test depend on the discipline chosen among the six disciplines. The six disciplines are Electrical, Mechanical, Civil, Control and Instrumentation and HR & Finance.

Technical Question Paper
Aptitude Question Paper
120 questions
50 questions
0.25 marks negative marking
0.25 marks negative marking
EE/EC/ME/CE/EI branches (any one)
Common to all branches

The number of questions in the Technical Test is 120 and that in the Aptitude Test is 50. The questions are of multiple choice types and time allotted is 2 hours. The questions are not very tough but time management is an important issue. Maximum number of questions should be answered for getting a chance, but it should also be remembered that there is a negative marking of 1/4th mark for every wrong answer.

The aptitude test questions do not belong to any specific stream. They consists general questions like Synonyms, Antonyms, Fill in the blanks with the most appropriate word, Word Analogies, Comprehension Passages. There can be some questions on problem solving skills. The problems are on topics like time and distance, profit and loss, ratio and proportion etc.


The CPSEs meeting the following eligibility criteria are proposed to be considered for Maharatna status:

  1. Having Navratna status.
  2. Listed on Indian stock exchange with minimum prescribed public shareholding under SEBI regulations.
  3. An average annual turnover of more than Rs.25,000 crore during the last 3 years.
  4. An average annual net worth of more than Rs.15,000 crore during the last 3 years.
  5. An average annual net profit after tax of more than Rs.5,000 crore during the last 3 years.
  6. Should have significant global presence/international operations.

The procedure for grant of Maharatna status as well as their review is proposed to be similar to that in vogue for the grant of Navratna status. The introduction of the above scheme will not entail any additional expenditure on the part of the Government.

Manny PSU’s are also conducting their own written exam for their recruitment.

The written test consists of two papers- Technical and Aptitude. The questions of the Technical test depend on the discipline chosen among the six disciplines. The six disciplines are Electrical, Mechanical, Civil, Control and Instrumentation and HR & Finance.

PSU'S Through GATE

Coal India Limited GATE
Indian Oil Corporation Limited GATE
Oil & Natural Gas Corporation Limited (ONGC) GATE
Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL)
GAIL (India) Limited GATE
Bharat Heavy Electrical Limited (BHEL) GATE